It placed Lt. Col. Yakubu Gowon into power. Abstract The paper seeks to cast the Nigerian civil war of 1967 to 1970 within the mould of a revolution. More than two million people died as a direct cause of the famine imposed deliberately through blockade throughout the war. Aguiyi Ironsi took over power from the senate president of the first republic, Nwafor Orizu. Although these parties were not exclusively homogeneous in terms of their ethnic or regional make-up, the later disintegration of Nigeria results largely from the fact that these parties were primarily based in one region and one tribe. ", Speaking to the BBC 30 years after the war, Chief Emeka Ojukwu said that "When the civil war ended, the government promised the Ibo people that there would be no victors and no vanquished." The retired General gave this warning at the 2013 annual armed forces […] The story is about a Biafran civil war and its effect on the lives of ordinary Nigerian people. The Nigerian Civil War, also known as the Nigerian-Biafran War, was a three-year bloody conflict with a death toll numbering more than one million people. It's 50 years since the start of the Biafran war, one of Africa's bloodiest post-independence conflicts. However reorganization of the Nigerian forces, the reluctance of the Biafran army to attack again, and the effects of a naval, land and air blockade of Biafra led to a change in the balance of forces. From these lessons came the beginnings of a framework for several issues, including: dealing with internally displaced persons (IDPs), negotiating humanitarian access and repatriation of unaccompanied children. On July 6, 1933, Major League Baseball’s first All-Star Game took place at Chicago’s Comiskey Park. © 2020 A&E Television Networks, LLC. On May 29, 2000, The Guardian of Lagos reported that President Olusegun Obasanjo commuted to retirement the dismissal of all military persons who fought for the breakaway state of Biafra during the Nigerian civil war. 361 1 . Meaning of Biafra. Nigeria then blocked food and supplies from entering Biafra, which resulted in a humanitarian crisis of huge proportion. Only a few days earlier, Ojukwu fled into exile by flying by plane to the republic of Côte d'Ivoire, leaving his deputy Philip Effiong to handle the details of the surrender to Yakubu Gowon of the federal army. The Swedish eccentric, Count Carl Gustaf von Rosen, also led a flight of MiniCOINs in action; his BAF (Biafran Air Force) consisted of three Swedes and two Biafrans. Biafra is a part of Nigeria covering the old eastern region of the country. who winds up at the center of key cultural and historical events of the second half of the 20th ...read more, FBI agents arrest George “Bugs” Moran, along with fellow crooks Virgil Summers and Albert Fouts, in Kentucky. Kouchner also witnessed these events, particularly the huge number of starving children, and when he returned to France, he publicly criticized the Nigerian government and the Red Cross for their seemingly complicit behavior. Colonel Odumegwu Ojukwu (1933–2011) from 6 July 1967 to 15 January 1970. The right-hand Nigerian column advanced on the town of Nsukka which fell on July 14, while the left-hand column made for Garkem, which was captured on July 12. As the media takes news more and more speedily around the globe, awareness of the oneness of the human family has developed. Former President Olusegun Obasanjo, yesterday lamented the current state of disunity in Nigeria, stressing that Nigeria was not as divided as it is today, during the civil war. In contrast to the Hausa-Fulani, the Igbo often participated directly in the decisions which affected their lives. It developed into a leading humanitarian agency. At age two, he will be declared the Dalai Lama. The Nigerians then settled down to a period of siege by blockading Biafra. Northern leaders, however, fearful that independence would mean political and economic domination by the more Westernized elites in the South, preferred the perpetuation of British rule. In May 1980, Elizabeth Anne Rowe became the first woman member of the class to graduate. ch.2 Civil Wars in africa: now and then/G. Nigeria has a diverse geography, with climates ranging from arid to humid equatorial. All Rights Reserved. The Nigerian Civil War which is also popularly known as the Biafran Civil War, was fought between 6th of July 1967 to 15th of January 1970. Recruitment into the Nigeria Army increased with Biafra's offensive to the west mostly among other southern ethnics especially Yoruba and Edo people. He was warned by his advisers that this reflected a failure to understand the difference on the side of Gowon, and that it would be revoked. eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'newworldencyclopedia_org-large-mobile-banner-1','ezslot_3',167,'0','0']));eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'newworldencyclopedia_org-large-mobile-banner-1','ezslot_4',167,'0','1']));eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'newworldencyclopedia_org-large-mobile-banner-1','ezslot_5',167,'0','2'])); The Nigerian government also claimed that the Biafran government was hiring foreign mercenaries to extend the war. His force attacked Nigerian military airfields in Port Harcourt, Enugu, Benin City and Ughelli, destroying or damaging a number of Nigerian Air Force jets used to attack relief flights, including a few Mig-17s and three out of Nigeria's six Ilyushin Il-28 bombers that were used to bomb Biafran villages and farms on a daily basis. It constituted the former Eastern Region of Nigeria and was inhabited principally by Igbo (Ibo) people. Military government continued in power in Nigeria for many years, and people in the oil-producing areas claimed they were being denied a fair share of oil revenues. He was a Northerner, a Christian, from a minority tribe, and had a good reputation within the army. Effects of the Nigerian Civil War { Biafra Civil War } The Nigerian Civil War cost the Igbos a great deal in terms of lives, money and infrastructure. Amphibious landings by the Nigerian marines led by Major Isaac Adaka Boro captured the Niger Delta cities of Bonny, Okrika and Port Harcourt on July 26, and the port of Calabar on October 18 by elements of the Nigerian 3rd Marine Commando Division. Igbo and Yoruba leaders, anxious to obtain an independent country at all cost accepted the Northern demands. The resulting civil war between Nigeria and Biafra lead to three bloody years of fighting and famine which killed roughly 1 million civilians (Philips). This article abides by terms of the Creative Commons CC-by-sa 3.0 License (CC-by-sa), which may be used and disseminated with proper attribution. There are events that occurred in the civil war that have been captured in this article. Although there were monarchs in these villages (whether hereditary or elected), they were largely little more than figureheads. For the country was divided in such a way that the North had slightly more population than the other two regions combined. Nigeria: The civil war …name of the Republic of Biafra , which the federal government interpreted as an act of rebellion. After entering the country, the volunteers, in addition to Biafran health workers and hospitals, were subjected to attacks by the Nigerian army, and witnessed civilians being murdered and starved by the blockading forces. The Nigerian Civil War, also known as the Nigerian-Biafran War, was a three-year bloody conflict with a death toll numbering more than one million people. The government exhausted all kinds of resources to end the uprising. It has been argued that by prolonging the war the Biafran relief effort (characterized by Canadian development consultant Ian Smillie as "an act of unfortunate and profound folly"), contributed to the deaths of as many as 180,000 civilians. The civil war of 1967-1970, in which up to two million persons died, was in part a consequence of this inherited colonial state. In Nigeria the two coups d'état of 1966 and the civil war of 1967–1970 have had a profound effect on economic activity, and in turn have been affected by economic variables. Chinua Achebe penned "Civil Peace" in 1971, depicting through it the effects of the Nigerian Civil War on a man and his family. the nigerian civil war causes, strategies and lessons learnt The Nigerian civil war, popularly known all over the world as the "Biafran War" was fought from 2 July 1967 to 15 January 1970. Bugs Moran’s ...read more. Nigeria, country located on the western coast of Africa. "The authorities," he continued, "were desperate to avoid a repetition of the ethnic tensions which preceded the war." In 1937, the child was declared the reincarnation of a great Buddhist spiritual leader and named the 14th Dalai Lama. They created Médecins Sans Frontières in 1971 (Doctors Without Borders).[4]. this made … They met little resistance and the Mid-West was easily taken over. The Nigerian Civil War, 1967 – 1970, was an ethnic and political conflict caused by the attempted secession of the South-eastern provinces of Nigeria as the self-proclaimed republic of Biafra. Remote Causes of the Nigerian Civil War. However, the Igbo people took to Western education zealously. 4 Biafra: a failed national prlject/ A. Isumonah. Unlike the other two regions, decisions among the Igbo were made by a general assembly in which every man could participate. The Nigerian government launched a "police action" to retake the secessionist territory. 2. Bernard Kouchner was one of a number of French doctors who volunteered with the French Red Cross to work in hospitals and feeding centers in besieged Biafra. During the Nigerian civil war, he opposed the Biafran cause. This work sets out to find out how in the devastating effect of the Nigerian Civil War on Onitsha, and how the basic infrastructure and amenities were restored in the city after the war. In the South, the missionaries rapidly introduced Western forms of education. It was fought between 6 th of July, 1967 to 15 th of January, 1970. In the North, the British found it convenient to rule indirectly through the Emirs, thus perpetuating rather than changing the indigenous authoritarian political system. The civil war in Nigeria is also termed or known as the Biafran war due to the facts that the provinces involved in this war made their name known to Nigerians as the Republic of Biafra. Once one of the biggest organized crime figures in America, Moran had been reduced to small bank robberies by this time. Other agencies were founded by people who worked in the Biafra relief program, such as INTERTECT. The election crisis had already infused bad blood in the various ethnic groups such as among the igbos, the Hausas and the Yorubas who nurse some hatred against one another even to the extermination of members. As a young man he apprenticed as ...read more, The front-page headline of the Liverpool Evening Express on July 6, 1957, read “MERSEYSIDE SIZZLES,” in reference to the heat wave then gripping not just northern England, but all of Europe. By the 1940s they had transformed themselves into one of the most educated, wealthiest, and politically unified groups in Nigeria and presented a serious challenge to Yoruba predominance in the civil service and the professions. At first Nigerian progress was slow, and failures of its larger army to invade the territory of the new republic led to a growth in worldwide support for Biafra. Purpose of the war was to quell the secession of Biafra from the original Nigeria. The war began on July 6, 1967 when Nigerian Federal troops advanced in two columns into Biafra. The division was made up of mostly northern officers. Even before the Nigerian Civil War happened, Nigeria had been facing many issues that related to political leaders trying to unify all of Nigeria and the different people. The different political systems among these three peoples produced highly divergent sets of customs and values. But the Nigerians were repulsed three times and lost thousands of troops as they tried to cross the Niger during October. [8] One positive result of the war was the development of mechanisms to respond rapidly to human tragedy, whether caused by natural disaster or human hand. INTERDECT - the International Disaster Specialists. This part has now been divided into the South South and South East regions. Directed by Biyi Bandele. Keih. The civil war was fought to counter the secession of Biafra from Nigeria { Brief History of the Nigerian Civil War Facts { Biafra Civil war } }. As Nigerian forces were to retake the Mid-West, the Biafran military administrator declared the Republic of Benin on September 19. Few events alter the socio-economic structure of a country as radically as the convulsions and displacements concomitant with war and political upheaval. Most notable of the mercenaries was Swedish Count Carl Gustav von Rosen who led five Malmö MFI-9 MiniCOIN small piston-engined aircraft, armed with rocket pods and machine guns. Nigeria also used 'mercenaries', in the form of Egyptian pilots for their air force MiG 17 fighters and Il 28 bombers. ch.1 General Introduction: The relevance of the Nigerian civil War/E. Credit is due under the terms of this license that can reference both the New World Encyclopedia contributors and the selfless volunteer contributors of the Wikimedia Foundation. Coordinates: 6°27′N 7°30′E Biafra, officially the Republic of Biafra, was a secessionist state in West Africa that existed from May 1967 to January 1970 during the Nigerian Civil War. Col. Muritala later became military head of state. However, with the outbreak of the Nigerian civil war, Achebe embraced the revolutionary spirit. The problem with this was that Shias and Sunnis both wanted more power in … Like any civil war, the Biafran war (or the "War of National Unity" as it was officially styled) was exceptional in the number of casualties. This was one of the first post-World War II tragedies that the media took into living rooms across the globe and it gave impetus to the development of humanitarian responses to complex emergencies, whether caused by natural calamity or by human hand. Sign up now to learn about This Day in History straight from your inbox. Several peace accords especially the one produced at Aburi, Ghana (the Aburi Accord) collapsed and a shooting war followed. It was fought between 6 th of July, 1967 to 15 th of January, 1970. It's 50 years since the start of the Biafran war, one of Africa's bloodiest post-independence conflicts. The state lost its oil fields–its main source of revenue–and without the funds to import food, an estimated one million of its civilians died as a result of severe malnutrition. Four years later, Kristine Holderied became ...read more, In Nazi-occupied Holland, 13-year-old Jewish diarist Anne Frank and her family are forced to take refuge in a secret sealed-off area of an Amsterdam warehouse. The war cost Nigeria a great deal in terms of lives, money, and its image in the world. The Nigerian civil war has never been referred to as a revolution. Fearing marginalization within the state, on May 30, 1967 the Igbo-majority province declared its independence as the Republic of Biafra. The tension set in motion by political activists in Nigeria eventually culminated in the outbreak of the civil war on December 6, 1967. It also ignored the fact that the army was largely composed of Northerners at the private level, but Igbos at the officer level, and thus promotions would have to draw upon a large body of Igbo officers. In a national broadcast, he said that the decision was based on the principle that "justice must at all times be tempered with mercy. However, the exclusion of easterners from power made many fear that the oil revenues would be used to benefit areas in the north and west rather than their own. Born in Missouri in 1835, Clemens followed a circuitous route to becoming an observer and writer of the American West. This was followed by a northerner-led counter coup a few months later. The soldiers that were supposed to defend Mid-West were mostly mid-west Igbos and were in touch with their eastern counterpart. While they did not doubt that starvation had occurred, it was less clear to what extent it was a result of the Nigerian blockade or the restriction of food to the civilians (to make it available to the military) by the Biafran government. The Igbos doubted that Nigeria’s oppressive military government would allow them to develop, or even survive, so on May 30, 1967, Lieutenant Colonel Odumegwu Ojukwu and other non-Igbo representatives of the area established the Republic of Biafra, comprising several states of Nigeria. Civil war breaks out in Nigeria Five weeks after its secession from Nigeria, the breakaway Republic of Biafra is attacked by Nigerian government forces. The cause of the fire was unknown, but it spread at incredible speed, racing up the ...read more, In Annapolis, Maryland, the United States Naval Academy admits women for the first time in its history with the induction of 81 female midshipmen. Following independence in 1960, three provinces were formed along tribal lines, the Hausa and Fulani (north), Yoruba (south-west), and Igbo or Ibo (south-east). Many volunteer bodies organized blockade-breaking relief flights into Biafra, carrying food, medicines, and sometimes (according to some claims) weapons. With reason. This coup was led by Lt. Col. Murtala Mohammed. Nigeria's army offensive was through the north of Biafra led by Col. Shuwa and designated as 1 division. The right-hand Nigerian column advanced on the town of Nsukka which fell on July 14, while the left-hand column made for Garkem, which was captured on July 12. ch 5 Continuing the Civil War by other means/R. The primary causes of the Nigerian Civil War (1967-1970) otherwise called the Biafran War, have already been discussed in several works (Forsyth, 1977; Madiebo, 1980; Nwankwo, 1972; Cervenka, 1971; Obasanjo, 1981; St. Jorre, 1992). The Biafran air attacks did disrupt the combat operations of the Nigerian Air Force, but only for a few months. The Nigerian government launched a "police action" to retake the secessionist territory. However reorganisation of the Nigerian forces, and the effects of a naval, land and air blockade … When Igbo civil servants left to join similar posts in Biafra, their positions had been replaced; and when the war was over the government did not feel that it should sack their replacements, preferring to regard the previous incumbents as having resigned. Biafran Currency. He died in prison 11 years later. The word Biafra most … These doctors, led by Kouchner, concluded that a new aid organization was needed that would ignore political/religious boundaries and prioritize the welfare of victims. A Nigerian commission, including British doctors from the Liverpool University School of Tropical Medicine, visited Biafra after the war and concluded that the evidence of deliberate starvation was overplayed, caused by confusion between the symptoms of starvation and various tropical illnesses. Published on October 29, 2018 by Nigerians For Nigeria. The coup, despite its failure, was perceived as having benefited mostly the Igbos because all but one of the five coup plotters were Igbos, and Ironsi, himself an Igbo, was thought to have promoted many Igbos in the Army at the expense of Yoruba and Hausa officers. Biafra ceased to exist as an independent state in January 1970. The Biafran war which convulsed the country for a period of 30 months was a collective tragedy that brought the Nigerian Nation on the brink of disintegration and also left it in a trail of reckless destruction of millions of lives and property. ch. The Hausas and Igbos still walk on eggs around each other, the Nigerian civil war has made tribalism or ethnic rivalry chewed deeper still.The resentment felt by the Igbos whenever there is a slight evidence of domination by the Hausas and vice versa. Nigeria became independent from Great Britain in 1960. They had a lively awareness of the political system and regarded it as an instrument for achieving their own personal goals. This further fueled Igbo fears that the northerners had plans to strip eastern oil to benefit the North. ‘‘Civil Peace’’ opens in eastern Nigeria after the civil war has ended. Don't waste time. The Igbo in the southeast, in contrast to the two other groups, lived in some six hundred autonomous, democratically-organized villages. Some of the founders of Médecins Sans Frontières (Doctors without Borders) took part, later establishing the agency as a response to the tragic war. The Hausa-Fulani commoners, having contact with the political system only through their village head who was designated by the Emir or one of his subordinates, did not view political leaders as amenable to influence. Having commenced seven years after Nigeria gained independence from Britain, the war began with the secession of the southeastern region of the nation on May 30, 1967, when it declared itself the independent Republic of Biafra . A 2017 BBC compressed summary of the Nigerian vs Biafra civil war between 1967 – 1970. The final Nigerian offensive, named "Operation Tail-Wind," was launched on January 7, 1970 with the 3rd Marine Commando Division attacking, and supported by the 1st Infantry division to the north and the 2nd Infantry division to the south. On this basis the Northern Region was allocated a majority of the seats in the Federal Legislature established by the colonial authorities. The American Civil War, waged from 1861 to 1865, is remembered on this date. The Red Cross required volunteers to sign an agreement, which was seen by some (like Kouchner and his supporters) as being similar to a gag order, that was designed to maintain the organization’s neutrality, whatever the circumstances. This can date all the way back to the 1920s. What was the Nigerian conflict about and why does it still matter today? Consequently, the Yoruba were the first group in Nigeria to become significantly modernized and they provided the first African civil servants, doctors, lawyers, and other technicians and professionals. The brainchild of a determined sports editor, the event was designed to bolster the sport and improve its reputation during the darkest years of the Great Depression. During the ensuing years, the Northern Emirs, thus were able to maintain traditional political and religious institutions, while limiting social change. Osaghae and E. Onwudiwe. The Nigerian federal forces launched their final offensive against the Biafrans on December 23, 1969 with a major thrust by the 3rd Marine Commando Division (the division was commanded by Col. Obasanjo, who later became president twice) which succeeded in splitting the Biafran enclave into two by the end of the year. It is important to note however, that this war had several consequences on the Igbo economy and in particular its food production systems. With Chiwetel Ejiofor, Thandie Newton, Anika Noni Rose, Joseph Mawle. [1] On July 29, 1966, the Northerners executed a counter-coup. Col. Ojukwu's Interview Before The Civil War. In the mid-1960s The ECOWAS Court has ordered 10 of the third-party applicants in a proceeding relating to the payment of compensation by Nigeria over its management of the country’s civil war aftermath, to file before its next sitting, the terms of their settlement. Five weeks after its secession from Nigeria, the breakaway Republic of Biafra is attacked by Nigerian government forces. From 1968 onward, the war fell into a form of stalemate, with Nigerian forces unable to make significant advances into the remaining areas of Biafran control. Contents/Summary. A view of blunders in the Nigerian strategy. This, however, has led to a feeling of an injustice. The Republic of Biafra had a different currency from that of Nigeria – the Biafran … Ojukwu’s forces made some initial advances, but Nigeria’s superior military strength gradually reduced Biafran territory. Prior to the discovery of oil, Nigeria's wealth derived from agricultural products from the south, and minerals from the north. In the play For Love of Biafra, published a year after Decisions, Adichie recounts the painful experiences of a young Igbo woman, Adaobi, and her family, at the time of the Nigerian civil war of the late 1960s. Former Head of State, Gen. Yakubu Gowon, has described Prof. Chinua Achebe’s Nigerian Civil War memoir in his latest book, There was a Country, as “a propaganda”. eval(ez_write_tag([[336,280],'newworldencyclopedia_org-medrectangle-4','ezslot_2',162,'0','0'])); The semi-feudal and Islamic Hausa-Fulani in the North were traditionally ruled by an autocratic, conservative Islamic hierarchy consisting of some 30-odd Emirs who, in turn, owed their allegiance to a supreme Sultan. His advisers, meanwhile, felt that Gowon had enacted as much of Aburi as was politically feasible and that Gowon had acted in the spirit of Aburi. Nigerian Civil War Summary in 3 Minutes. Biafra's declaration of independence from Nigeria resulted in civil war between Biafra and Nigeria. Biafra at 50: Nigeria's civil war explained. Disaster fatigue: As calamities mount, U.S. donors give less, question where aid goes. Contents. The effects of the Nigeria civil war can still be felt everywhere in the country at varying degrees. More than fifty years ago, Great Britain carved an area out of West Africa containing hundreds of different groups and unified it, calling it Nigeria. On July 6, 1946, George Walker Bush, the son of future President George Herbert Walker Bush, is born in New Haven, Connecticut. The Nigerian government immediately launched a "police action", using the armed forces to retake the secessionist territory. The north, up until around 1965, had had low-level demands to secede from Nigeria and retain its wealth for northerners. However, in spite of Biafra’s importance, the world seems to have little recollection of this conflict and the lessons learned. Biafra surrendered on January 13, 1970. By signing up, you'll get thousands of step-by-step solutions to your homework questions. Commemorating the international relief effort. [9], On the other hand, this war and others that have taken place in the post-colonial space confirm for some the notion that places like Africa are still too rife with ancient tribal animosities to create stable and viable states, thus some members of the international community have been slow to respond even when the facts of people's suffering (such as in Rwanda during the Rwandan Genocide are fully known. Jonathan Iwegbu has survived the Nigerian Civil War along with his wife and three of his four children, and thus considers himself “extraordinarily lucky”. As a result, the North, at the time of independence in 1960, was by far the most underdeveloped area in Nigeria with a literacy rate of 2 percent as compared to 19.2 percent in the East (literacy in Arabic script, learned in connection with religious education, was higher). Banjo. Civil Peace by Chinua Achebe: Summary The well-known Nigerian author Chinua Achebe's short story 'Civil Peace' is a realistic story which presents the condition immediately after the Civil War. The Nigerian Civil War which broke out on 6 July 1967 and lasted until January 15, 1970, was the culmination of an uneasy peace and instability that had plagued the Nation from independence in 1960. Achebe in the book, accused the Federal Government under Gowon and the late Chief Obafemi Awolowo, who was then the Minister of Finance, of using hunger as a weapon of war against the Republic of Biafra. In June 1969, the Biafrans launched a desperate offensive against the Nigerians in their attempts to keep the Nigerians off-balance. ch.3 The war and the Nigerian state/ A. Agbaje. To simplify matters, these can be referred to as the Hausa, Yoruba, and Igbo-based; or Northern, Western and Eastern parties. These tradition-derived differences were perpetuated and, perhaps, even enhanced by the British system of colonial rule in Nigeria. At this stage of the war, other regions of Nigeria (the West and Mid-West) still considered the war as a confrontation between the north (notable Hausas) and the east (notable Igbos). Gowon was chosen as a compromise candidate. The Biafrans continued to resist in their core Igbo heartlands, which were soon surrounded by Nigerian forces. The country was Christian limiting social change carrying food, medical supplies and weapons Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License and Names! For a few months provide and coordinate aid and assistance to those affected by a General assembly in every. The breakaway Republic of Biafra from the South, and lessons Learnt Ejiofor, Thandie Newton, Anika Rose..., Literature, Sports and leisure editors rewrote and completed the Wikipedia article in accordance new. 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